Kansas Education Resource Center


Grade  :  High School
Content Area  :  Reading, Approved 2003

1 Reading
The student reads and comprehends text across the curriculum.
1.1 The student uses skills in alphabetics to construct meaning from text.
1.2 The student reads fluently.
1.2.1 The student adjusts reading rate to support comprehension when reading narrative, expository, technical, and persuasive texts.
1.3 The student expands vocabulary.
1.3.1 The student determines meaning of words or phrases using context clues (e.g., definitions, restatements, examples, descriptions, comparison-contrast, clue words, cause-effect) from sentences or paragraphs.
1.3.2 The student locates and uses reference materials available in the classroom, school, and public libraries (e.g., dictionaries, thesauri, atlases, encyclopedias, internet) that are appropriate to the task.
1.3.3 The student determines meaning of words through structural analysis, using knowledge of *Greek, *Latin, and Anglo-Saxton *roots, *prefixes, and *suffixes to understand complex words, including words in science, mathematics, and social studies.
1.3.4 The student identifies, interprets, and analyzes the use of figurative language, including similes, metaphors, analogies, hyperbole, onomatopoeia, personification, idioms, imagery and symbolism.
1.3.5 The student discriminates connotative and denotative meanings and interprets the connotative power of words.
1.4 The student comprehends a variety of texts (narrative, expository, technical, and persuasive).
1.4.1 The student identifies characteristics of narrative, expository, technical, and persuasive texts.
1.4.2 The student understands the purpose of text features (e.g., title, graphs/charts and maps, table of contents, pictures/illustrations, boldface type, italics, glossary, index, headings, subheadings, topic and summary sentences, captions, sidebars, underlining, numbered or bulleted lists, footnotes, annotations) and uses such features to locate information in and to gain meaning from appropriate-level texts.
1.4.3 The student uses prior knowledge, content, and text type feature to make, to revises, and to confirm predictions.
1.4.4 The student generates and responds logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions before, during, and after reading the text.
1.4.5 The student uses information from the text to make inferences and draw conclusions.
1.4.6 The student analyzes and evaluates how authors use text structure (e.g., sequence, problem-solution, comparison-contrast, description, cause-effect) to help achieve their purposes.
1.4.7 The student compares and contrasts varying aspects (e.g., characters' traits and motives, themes, problem-solution, cause-effect relationships, ideas and concepts, procedures, viewpoints, authors' purposes, persuasive techniques, use of literary devices, thoroughness of supporting evidence) in one or more appropriate level texts.
1.4.8 The student explains and analyzes cause-effect relationships in appropriate-level narrative, expository, technical, and persuasive texts.
1.4.9 The student uses paraphrasing and organizational skills to summarize information (e.g., stated and implied main ideas, main events, important details, underlying meaning) from appropriate-level narrative, expository, persuasive, and technical texts in logical or sequential order, clearly preserving the author's intent.
1.4.10 The student identifies the topic, main idea(s), supporting details, and theme(s) in text across the content areas and from a variety of sources in appropriate-level texts.
1.4.11 The student analyzes and evaluates how an author's style (e.g., word choice, sentence structure) an use of literary devices (e.g., foreshadowing, flashback, irony, symbolism, tone, mood, satire, imagery, point of view, allusion, overstatement, paradox) work together to achieve his or her purpose for writing text.
1.4.12 The student establishes purposes for both assigned and self-selected reading (e.g., to be informed, to follow directions, to be entertained, to solve problems).
1.4.13 The student follows directions presented in technical text.
1.4.14 The student identifies the author's position in a persuasive text, describes techniques the author uses to support that position (e.g., bandwagon approach, glittering generalities, testimonials, citing authority, statistics, other techniques that appeal to reason or emotion), and evaluates the effectiveness of these techniques and the credibility of the information provided.
1.4.15 The student distinguishes between fact and opinion, and recognizes propaganda (e.g., advertising, media, politics, warfare), bias, and stereotypes in various types of appropriate-level texts.





2 Literature
The student responds to a variety of texts.
2.1 The student uses literary concepts to interpret and respond to text.
2.1.1 The student identifies and describes different types of characters (e.g., protagonist, antagonist, round, flat, static, dynamic) and analyzes the development of characters.
2.1.2 The student analyzes the historical, social, and cultural contextual aspects of the setting and their influence on characters and events in the story or literary text.
2.1.3 The student analyzes and evaluates how the author uses various plot elements (e.g., problem or conflict, climax, resolution, rising action, falling action, subplots, parallel episodes) to advance the plot and make connections between events.
2.1.4 The student analyzes themes, tone, and the author's point-of-view across a variety of literary works, and genres using textual evidence and considering audience and purpose.
2.1.5 The student identifies, analyzes, and evaluates the use of literary devices (e.g., foreshadowing, flashback, irony, figurative language, imagery, symbolism, satire, allusion, paradox, dialogue, point-of-view, overstatement) in text.
2.2 The student understands the significance of literature and its contributions to various cultures.
2.2.1 The student recognizes ways that literature from different cultures presents similar themes differently across genres.
2.2.2 The student compares and contrasts works of literature that deal with similar topics and problems.
2.2.3 The student evaluates distinctive and shared characteristics of cultures through a variety of texts.